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The history of slot machines date back to many years, and although there is still debate as to who invented them, there are two generally accepted theories of how the first machine came about.
Their history goes back to the s. The Liberty Bell machine that was invented by Charles Fey back in The simple machine had only three reels and five symbols, including a liberty bell, a heart, a horseshoe, a spade and a diamond.
Other tales tell that Fey did not develop the machine until , and the first slot device was only inaugurated in by Pitt and Sittman.
This machine is said to have been based on poker although it only used 50 cards. The 50 cards had five spinning drums.
They displayed a five-card poker hand on every spin. The better the hand showed, the more a player was going to win. The two devices have some similarities and differences.
They both needed a player to pull a lever to start the drums or rotate the reels. This is what made slot machines to be referred to as one-armed bandits.
Herbert Mills released his first slot machine known as the Operators Bell in It came with the introduction of fruit symbols like cherries and watermelons.
These are still found in modern slot machines. Due to various gambling laws and prohibitions, slot machines could no longer pay players cash prizes.
This led to players getting candies and chewing gumballs, which related to the winning symbols. At around this time, the BAR symbol came into play.
It was the logo of the Bell-Fruit gum corporation. These machines remained popular, and you could find them in bars, casinos, and tobacco shops.
However, the next big development in the slot machines evolution was in This is when Bally, the gaming machine developer, unleashed the first completely electromechanical slot machine.
It was known as the Money Honey and came with a new feature, which was a bottomless hopper. This made it possible for automatic payouts of a maximum of coins.
The new slot machine did not require a level. As more electromechanical slots were introduced, the level got replaced with buttons.
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Since the turn of the century some information regarding these figures has started to come into the public domain either through various casinos releasing them—primarily this applies to online casinos—or through studies by independent gambling authorities.
The return to player is not the only statistic that is of interest. The probabilities of every payout on the pay table is also critical.
For example, consider a hypothetical slot machine with a dozen different values on the pay table. However, the probabilities of getting all the payouts are zero except the largest one.
Also, most people would not win anything, and having entries on the paytable that have a return of zero would be deceptive.
As these individual probabilities are closely guarded secrets, it is possible that the advertised machines with high return to player simply increase the probabilities of these jackpots.
The added advantage is that these large jackpots increase the excitement of the other players. The table of probabilities for a specific machine is called the Probability and Accounting Report or PAR sheet, also PARS commonly understood as Paytable and Reel Strips.
Mathematician Michael Shackleford revealed the PARS for one commercial slot machine, an original International Gaming Technology Red White and Blue machine.
This game, in its original form, is obsolete, so these specific probabilities do not apply. He only published the odds after a fan of his sent him some information provided on a slot machine that was posted on a machine in the Netherlands.
The psychology of the machine design is quickly revealed. There are 13 possible payouts ranging from to 2, The payout comes every 8 plays.
The payout comes every 33 plays, whereas the payout comes every plays. Most players assume the likelihood increases proportionate to the payout. The one mid-size payout that is designed to give the player a thrill is the payout.
It is programmed to occur an average of once every plays. The payout is high enough to create excitement, but not high enough that it makes it likely that the player will take their winnings and abandon the game.
In contrast the payout occurs only on average of once every 6, plays. The player who continues to feed the machine is likely to have several mid-size payouts, but unlikely to have a large payout.
He quits after he is bored or has exhausted his bankroll. Despite their confidentiality, occasionally a PAR sheet is posted on a website. They have limited value to the player, because usually a machine will have 8 to 12 different possible programs with varying payouts.
In addition, slight variations of each machine e. The casino operator can choose which EPROM chip to install in any particular machine to select the payout desired.
The result is that there is not really such a thing as a high payback type of machine, since every machine potentially has multiple settings.
From October to February , columnist Michael Shackleford obtained PAR sheets for five different nickel machines; four IGT games Austin Powers , Fortune Cookie , Leopard Spots and Wheel of Fortune and one game manufactured by WMS; Reel 'em In.
Without revealing the proprietary information, he developed a program that would allow him to determine with usually less than a dozen plays on each machine which EPROM chip was installed.
Then he did a survey of over machines in 70 different casinos in Las Vegas. He averaged the data, and assigned an average payback percentage to the machines in each casino.
The resultant list was widely publicized for marketing purposes especially by the Palms casino which had the top ranking. One reason that the slot machine is so profitable to a casino is that the player must play the high house edge and high payout wagers along with the low house edge and low payout wagers.
Other bets have a higher house edge, but the player is rewarded with a bigger win up to thirty times in craps. The player can choose what kind of wager he wants to make.
A slot machine does not afford such an opportunity. Theoretically, the operator could make these probabilities available, or allow the player to choose which one so that the player is free to make a choice.
However, no operator has ever enacted this strategy. Different machines have different maximum payouts, but without knowing the odds of getting the jackpot, there is no rational way to differentiate.
In many markets where central monitoring and control systems are used to link machines for auditing and security purposes, usually in wide area networks of multiple venues and thousands of machines, player return must usually be changed from a central computer rather than at each machine.
A range of percentages is set in the game software and selected remotely. In , the Nevada Gaming Commission began working with Las Vegas casinos on technology that would allow the casino's management to change the game, the odds, and the payouts remotely.
The change cannot be done instantaneously, but only after the selected machine has been idle for at least four minutes. After the change is made, the machine must be locked to new players for four minutes and display an on-screen message informing potential players that a change is being made.
Some varieties of slot machines can be linked together in a setup sometimes known as a "community" game. The most basic form of this setup involves progressive jackpots that are shared between the bank of machines, but may include multiplayer bonuses and other features.
In some cases multiple machines are linked across multiple casinos. In these cases, the machines may be owned by the manufacturer, who is responsible for paying the jackpot.
The casinos lease the machines rather than owning them outright. Casinos in New Jersey, Nevada, and South Dakota now offer multi-state progressive jackpots, which now offer bigger jackpot pools.
Mechanical slot machines and their coin acceptors were sometimes susceptible to cheating devices and other scams. One historical example involved spinning a coin with a short length of plastic wire.
The weight and size of the coin would be accepted by the machine and credits would be granted. However, the spin created by the plastic wire would cause the coin to exit through the reject chute into the payout tray.
This particular scam has become obsolete due to improvements in newer slot machines. Another obsolete method of defeating slot machines was to use a light source to confuse the optical sensor used to count coins during payout.
Modern slot machines are controlled by EPROM computer chips and, in large casinos, coin acceptors have become obsolete in favor of bill acceptors.
These machines and their bill acceptors are designed with advanced anti-cheating and anti-counterfeiting measures and are difficult to defraud.
Early computerized slot machines were sometimes defrauded through the use of cheating devices, such as the "slider", "monkey paw", "lightwand" and "the tongue".
Malfunctioning electronic slot machines are capable of indicating jackpot winnings far in excess of those advertised.
In the United States, the public and private availability of slot machines is highly regulated by state governments.
Many states have established gaming control boards to regulate the possession and use of slot machines and other form of gaming.
Nevada is the only state that has no significant restrictions against slot machines both for public and private use. In New Jersey , slot machines are only allowed in hotel casinos operated in Atlantic City.
Several states Indiana , Louisiana and Missouri allow slot machines as well as any casino-style gambling only on licensed riverboats or permanently anchored barges.
Since Hurricane Katrina , Mississippi has removed the requirement that casinos on the Gulf Coast operate on barges and now allows them on land along the shoreline.
Delaware allows slot machines at three horse tracks; they are regulated by the state lottery commission. In Wisconsin, bars and taverns are allowed to have up to five machines.
These machines usually allow a player to either take a payout, or gamble it on a double-or-nothing "side game". The territory of Puerto Rico places significant restrictions on slot machine ownership, but the law is widely flouted and slot machines are common in bars and coffeeshops.
In regards to tribal casinos located on Native American reservations , slot machines played against the house and operating independently from a centralized computer system are classified as "Class III" gaming by the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act IGRA , and sometimes promoted as "Vegas-style" slot machines.
As a workaround, some casinos may operate slot machines as "Class II" games—a category that includes games where players play exclusively against at least one other opponent and not the house, such as bingo or any related games such as pull-tabs.
In these cases, the reels are an entertainment display with a pre-determined outcome based on a centralized game played against other players.
Under the IGRA, Class II games are regulated by individual tribes and the National Indian Gaming Commission , and do not require any additional approval if the state already permits tribal gaming.
Some historical race wagering terminals operate in a similar manner, with the machines using slots as an entertainment display for outcomes paid using the parimutuel betting system, based on results of randomly-selected, previously-held horse races with the player able to view selected details about the race and adjust their picks before playing the credit, or otherwise use an auto-bet system.
Alaska , Arizona , Arkansas , Kentucky , Maine , Minnesota , Nevada , Ohio , Rhode Island , Texas , Utah , Virginia , and West Virginia place no restrictions on private ownership of slot machines.
Conversely, in Connecticut , Hawaii , Nebraska , South Carolina , and Tennessee , private ownership of any slot machine is completely prohibited. The remaining states allow slot machines of a certain age typically 25—30 years or slot machines manufactured before a specific date.
For a detailed list of state-by-state regulations on private slot machine ownership, see U. The Government of Canada has minimal involvement in gambling beyond the Canadian Criminal Code.
In essence, the term "lottery scheme" used in the code means slot machines, bingo and table games normally associated with a casino.
These fall under the jurisdiction of the province or territory without reference to the federal government; in practice, all Canadian provinces operate gaming boards that oversee lotteries, casinos and video lottery terminals under their jurisdiction.
OLG piloted a classification system for slot machines at the Grand River Raceway developed by University of Waterloo professor Kevin Harrigan, as part of its PlaySmart initiative for responsible gambling.
Inspired by nutrition labels on foods, they displayed metrics such as volatility and frequency of payouts. In Australia "Poker Machines" or "pokies"  are officially termed "gaming machines".
In Australia, gaming machines are a matter for state governments, so laws vary between states. Gaming machines are found in casinos approximately one in each major city , pubs and clubs in some states usually sports, social, or RSL clubs.
The first Australian state to legalize this style of gambling was New South Wales , when in they were made legal in all registered clubs in the state.
There are suggestions that the proliferation of poker machines has led to increased levels of problem gambling ; however, the precise nature of this link is still open to research.
In the Australian Productivity Commission reported that nearly half Australia's gaming machines were in New South Wales.
Australia ranks 8th in total number of gaming machines after Japan, U. This primarily is because gaming machines have been legal in the state of New South Wales since ; over time, the number of machines has grown to 97, at December , including the Australian Capital Territory.
By way of comparison, the U. State of Nevada, which legalised gaming including slots several decades before N. This new law also banned machines with an automatic play option.
All gaming machines in Victoria have an information screen accessible to the user by pressing the "i key" button, showing the game rules, paytable, return to player percentage, and the top and bottom five combinations with their odds.
These combinations are stated to be played on a minimum bet usually 1 credit per line, with 1 line or reel played, although some newer machines do not have an option to play 1 line; some machines may only allow maximum lines to be played , excluding feature wins.
Western Australia has the most restrictive regulations on electronic gaming machines in general, with the Crown Perth casino resort being the only venue allowed to operate them,  and banning slot machines with spinning reels entirely.
This policy had an extensive political history, reaffirmed by the Royal Commission into Gambling: . Poker machine playing is a mindless, repetitive and insidious form of gambling which has many undesirable features.
It requires no thought, no skill or social contact. The odds are never about winning. Watching people playing the machines over long periods of time, the impressionistic evidence at least is that they are addictive to many people.
Historically poker machines have been banned from Western Australia and we consider that, in the public interest, they should stay banned.
While Western Australian gaming machines are similar to the other states', they do not have spinning reels. Therefore different animations are used in place of the spinning reels in order to display each game result.
Nick Xenophon was elected on an independent No Pokies ticket in the South Australian Legislative Council at the South Australian state election on 2.
Independent candidate Andrew Wilkie , an anti-pokies campaigner, was elected to the Australian House of Representatives seat of Denison at the federal election.
Slot machines have come a heck of a long way since Charles Fey tinkered with the first Liberty Bell machines in his basement.
The number of slot machines in existence today is innumerable. Tens of millions of machines are available in casinos, pubs, bars, cafes, and gaming halls across the world.
Will we someday see a billion-dollar progressive jackpot? Based out of London, I began freelance writing for the UK section of GamblingSites.
Having worked in the gambling industry for over 10 years, I now have the pleasure of adding this site to my list of accomplishments as a casino writer.
Who Invented Slot Machines? What will happen to slot machines in the future?
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